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Cesia G. Roberto A. Lugo-Guillen 1. Cuervo-Lozano 2. Rodrigo E.
Mhmed today, many young artists still mhmed by sexo works. He was from mhmed poor family and had to work in agriculture. In his early childhood he plowed in the mhmed of his sexo, to support his xexo sexo. Because of lack of money Mihemed Sexo could go to school only up to the sixth class. Among his teachers, he was considered a pious intelligent boy. Subsequently, he moved with his family to the city where he continued to work. Inhe was able to attend a middle mhmd.

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Morphometric measures were performed bilaterally using a millimetric digital Vernier with a precision of 0. Operative definitions of the anatomical sites used. Widths of the LF in its upper, middle, and lower third: Distance between the anterior lacrimal crest and the posterior lacrimal crest in the upper, middle, and lower third of the LF Fig. Measuring techniques. Morphometric measures of the transverse and the anteroposterior diameters of the bony aperture of the NLD and the length of the NLD were evaluated.

Measures were carried out indirectly by introducing the ophthalmologic caliper in the bony aperture of the NLD; afterwards, the external diameter of the aperture of the ophthalmologic caliper was measured with a millimetric digital Vernier Fig. The length of the NLD was determined indirectly according to the method described by Post. Post, This consists of introducing into the NLD a known length of flexible cable that has a 2-millimeter right angle at its end it is fixed to the lower margin of the inferior turbinate Fig.

The point at which the cable reaches the bone aperture of the NLD was marked, delimiting the portion of the cable that is above the bony entrance of the NLD; the cable was then extracted and using the millimeter digital Vernier, the distance between this point and the free end of the cable was measured Fig. Superior view of the nasolacrimal duct NLD; b.

Anteroposterior diameter of the NLD bone entrance; d. Technique of indirect measurement of the transverse and anteroposterior diameters of the NLD; e. Length of the LND. Indirect measurement technique of NLD length; g. Fossa for lacrimal gland length. Width of fossa for lacrimal gland.

The length and width of the upper, middle, and lower third of the LF were measured. Morphometry of the LF was performed directly on the bone specimens using the millimetric digital Vernier. Statistical analysis. Was performed using SPSS version The mean and standard deviation for each parameter measured in the four groups were independently determined.

The results are presented in Tables I and II. Before starting the study, a random subsample of 40 orbits of random bone specimens was used to standardize the measuring technique and to perform intraobserver variation. Intraobserver variation. No significant differences were found between the mean morphometry results and the two measurements performed in the subsample formed by 40 orbits p values between 0. Nasolacrimal duct. Fossa for lacrimal gland.

In this study, we documented the morphometry bone dimensions of the NLD and the LF in relation to age and sex differences. The length of the NLD was smaller in women than men in both age groups.

The NLD transverse diameter was shorter in men than in women independently of the age. The length of the LF was longer in women younger than 40 years of age than men and women older than 40 years. The width of the lower third of the LF was shorter in women over than 40 years of age than in those under than 40 years.

The other measurements did not show significant differences between sex or age group. Primary obstruction of the NLD is more frequent between 61 and 80 years of age Francisco et al. There are other factors in addition to the bony dimensions of the NLD that predispose to lower lacrimal pathway obstruction in this population, such as fibrous changes in the NLD mucosa associated with idiopathic inflammatory processes and menopausal hormone imbalances, which predispose to the accumulation of debris, the stagnation of tears and adhesion of the mucosa Shigeta et al.

Several authors show length differences of the bone entrance of the NLD that might be related to ethnic or methodological differences Table III. Furthermore, some studies do not analyze the age and gender of patients Saxena; Groessl et al. The measurements of the NLD bone in our study are smaller than reported in the literature in several populations, such as Asians and Africans Saxena; Janssen et al.

Our study in Mexican population reports values that tend to be smaller than those of other populations, so we believe that there are differences in the NLD between ethnic groups Table III , which could explain differences between countries in prevalence of lower nasolacrimal duct obstruction in adults.

The transverse diameter of the NLD bone entrance was significantly smaller in men than women independently of the age. However, that difference was because the group of men over 40 years had smaller diameter than women, which differs with Shigeta et al.

Most authors also report transverse and anteroposterior diameters greater than what we found Groessl et al. The anteroposterior NLD diameter is greater than the transverse diameter in most reports, which is consistent with our study Table III. The limitation of this study is that the area of the bone entrance of the NLD was not measured, only its diameters.

Since the diameter of the NLD bone entrance is shorter in men and lower lacrimal duct obstruction is more frequent in women our results may suggests the diameter of bone entrance of the NLD in general population does not appear to be an influential factor in the pathogenesis of lower lacrimal duct obstruction in Mexican population.

Another weakness of the study is that it was performed in the general population and not in patients with a diagnosis of lower lacrimal duct obstruction, and it is assumed that individuals with obstruction of the lacrimal duct have anatomical alterations that were not found in our study population.

Another limitation is that it was performed in dry orbits, so we could not take into consideration the membranous or soft tissue portion of the lacrimal duct, which could also influence the pathogenesis of lower lacrimal duct obstruction, as mentioned before.

Comparative in vivo morphological studies in individuals with and without obstruction of the lacrimal duct are needed, such as those performed by Janssen et al. In our study, the NLD length was significantly shorter in women than in men in both age groups and did not change with age, which coincides with some autors Post, ; Ramey et al.

Ramey et al. It is difficult to explain how the shorter NLD length can predispose to obstruction. The width of the lower third of the LF in our study was similar between genders and smaller in women older than 40 years.

Groell et al. The LF length was greater in women younger than 40 years of age than in men younger than 40 and in women older than 40 years. Yong et al. Fayet et al. The difference observed in the measurements reported by some authors may be due, among other things, to differences in the method of measurement and morphological differences among the ethnicities of the studied groups.

In our study on the lower lacrimal pathway in adults, we found significant differences between gender and age groups in some of the morphometric measurements.

Comparative studies between cases with and without obstruction of the lacrimal duct are needed to determine if the morphometric differences found in our study have a role in the etiology and sex differences in frequency of lower lacrimal pathway obstruction. No type of external financing was provided. We also thank Sergio Lozano-Rodriguez, M. Bartley, G. Acquired lacrimal drainage obstruction: an etiologic classification system, case reports, and a review of the literature.

Part 1. Fasina, O. CT assessment of the nasolacrimal canal in a black African population. Fayet, B. Surgical anatomy of the lacrimal fossa a prospective computed tomodensitometry scan analysis. Often, the young talented artist had performed at weddings. In the Lebanese capital Beirut he began to study music.

Influenced by his patriotic stance he mainly made music in the Kurdish language. In Lebanon, his talent fascinated dozens of people. Although there were multiple offers for him to participate in well-known groups, however, he decided to return to his home. In he traveled to Iraq to develop his musical talent. There he played Kurdish songs on a local radio.

Despite political reprisals, he moved back to his hometown. He brought out a cassette titled "Ay Gewere", whereby he again won the heart of the Kurdish people. From then on he began to sing his songs in his home country of unfulfilled longing. Several times the Syrian police arrested him because of his music.

Nevertheless, he argued, to produce songs in the Kurdish language. Allegedly he has lived in Gonbad Kavus. In Iran he became acquainted with Persian and Arabic as a teachers taught in schools. He also married a Kurdish woman. The Arabic music aroused curiosity in him.

Influenced by Arabic music, he expanded his musical skills. He wanted to publish his songs free on Kurdish exactly like other famous Arab singers. After the newly formed Iranian regime sit up a policy of assimilation of the Kurdish population , Iranian security forces arrested him.

Meanwhile, he was a very important Kurdish singer in Western Kurdistan. There was hardly anyone in the west of Kurdistan, who did not know his music. At that time he had already brought 14 music cassettes on the market, which had sold quickly. But his music also found encouragement in other parts of Kurdistan.

In , on 9 March the Kurdish singer died after three days of illness. Many artists make music based on his style. His folk elements of music and often political lyrics made him a special person. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues.

The length of the NLD was determined indirectly according to the method described by Post. Post, This consists of introducing into the NLD a known length of flexible cable that has a 2-millimeter right angle at its end it is fixed to the lower margin of the inferior turbinate Fig. The point at which the cable reaches the bone aperture of the NLD was marked, delimiting the portion of the cable that is above the bony entrance of the NLD; the cable was then extracted and using the millimeter digital Vernier, the distance between this point and the free end of the cable was measured Fig.

Superior view of the nasolacrimal duct NLD; b. Anteroposterior diameter of the NLD bone entrance; d. Technique of indirect measurement of the transverse and anteroposterior diameters of the NLD; e. Length of the LND. Indirect measurement technique of NLD length; g.

Fossa for lacrimal gland length. Width of fossa for lacrimal gland. The length and width of the upper, middle, and lower third of the LF were measured. Morphometry of the LF was performed directly on the bone specimens using the millimetric digital Vernier.

Statistical analysis. Was performed using SPSS version The mean and standard deviation for each parameter measured in the four groups were independently determined. The results are presented in Tables I and II. Before starting the study, a random subsample of 40 orbits of random bone specimens was used to standardize the measuring technique and to perform intraobserver variation.

Intraobserver variation. No significant differences were found between the mean morphometry results and the two measurements performed in the subsample formed by 40 orbits p values between 0.

Nasolacrimal duct. Fossa for lacrimal gland. In this study, we documented the morphometry bone dimensions of the NLD and the LF in relation to age and sex differences. The length of the NLD was smaller in women than men in both age groups. The NLD transverse diameter was shorter in men than in women independently of the age. The length of the LF was longer in women younger than 40 years of age than men and women older than 40 years.

The width of the lower third of the LF was shorter in women over than 40 years of age than in those under than 40 years. The other measurements did not show significant differences between sex or age group.

Primary obstruction of the NLD is more frequent between 61 and 80 years of age Francisco et al. There are other factors in addition to the bony dimensions of the NLD that predispose to lower lacrimal pathway obstruction in this population, such as fibrous changes in the NLD mucosa associated with idiopathic inflammatory processes and menopausal hormone imbalances, which predispose to the accumulation of debris, the stagnation of tears and adhesion of the mucosa Shigeta et al.

Several authors show length differences of the bone entrance of the NLD that might be related to ethnic or methodological differences Table III. Furthermore, some studies do not analyze the age and gender of patients Saxena; Groessl et al.

The measurements of the NLD bone in our study are smaller than reported in the literature in several populations, such as Asians and Africans Saxena; Janssen et al. Our study in Mexican population reports values that tend to be smaller than those of other populations, so we believe that there are differences in the NLD between ethnic groups Table III , which could explain differences between countries in prevalence of lower nasolacrimal duct obstruction in adults.

The transverse diameter of the NLD bone entrance was significantly smaller in men than women independently of the age. However, that difference was because the group of men over 40 years had smaller diameter than women, which differs with Shigeta et al.

Most authors also report transverse and anteroposterior diameters greater than what we found Groessl et al. The anteroposterior NLD diameter is greater than the transverse diameter in most reports, which is consistent with our study Table III. The limitation of this study is that the area of the bone entrance of the NLD was not measured, only its diameters. Since the diameter of the NLD bone entrance is shorter in men and lower lacrimal duct obstruction is more frequent in women our results may suggests the diameter of bone entrance of the NLD in general population does not appear to be an influential factor in the pathogenesis of lower lacrimal duct obstruction in Mexican population.

Another weakness of the study is that it was performed in the general population and not in patients with a diagnosis of lower lacrimal duct obstruction, and it is assumed that individuals with obstruction of the lacrimal duct have anatomical alterations that were not found in our study population. Another limitation is that it was performed in dry orbits, so we could not take into consideration the membranous or soft tissue portion of the lacrimal duct, which could also influence the pathogenesis of lower lacrimal duct obstruction, as mentioned before.

Comparative in vivo morphological studies in individuals with and without obstruction of the lacrimal duct are needed, such as those performed by Janssen et al. In our study, the NLD length was significantly shorter in women than in men in both age groups and did not change with age, which coincides with some autors Post, ; Ramey et al. Ramey et al. It is difficult to explain how the shorter NLD length can predispose to obstruction.

The width of the lower third of the LF in our study was similar between genders and smaller in women older than 40 years. Groell et al. The LF length was greater in women younger than 40 years of age than in men younger than 40 and in women older than 40 years. Yong et al. Fayet et al. The difference observed in the measurements reported by some authors may be due, among other things, to differences in the method of measurement and morphological differences among the ethnicities of the studied groups.

In our study on the lower lacrimal pathway in adults, we found significant differences between gender and age groups in some of the morphometric measurements.

Comparative studies between cases with and without obstruction of the lacrimal duct are needed to determine if the morphometric differences found in our study have a role in the etiology and sex differences in frequency of lower lacrimal pathway obstruction.

No type of external financing was provided. We also thank Sergio Lozano-Rodriguez, M. Bartley, G. Acquired lacrimal drainage obstruction: an etiologic classification system, case reports, and a review of the literature. Part 1. Fasina, O. CT assessment of the nasolacrimal canal in a black African population. Fayet, B. Surgical anatomy of the lacrimal fossa a prospective computed tomodensitometry scan analysis.

Ophthalmology , 6 , Francisco, F. Evaluation of lacrimal ducts by dacryocystography. Groell, R. CTanatomy of the nasolacrimal sac and duct. Groessl, S. Several times the Syrian police arrested him because of his music. Nevertheless, he argued, to produce songs in the Kurdish language. Allegedly he has lived in Gonbad Kavus. In Iran he became acquainted with Persian and Arabic as a teachers taught in schools. He also married a Kurdish woman. The Arabic music aroused curiosity in him.

Influenced by Arabic music, he expanded his musical skills. He wanted to publish his songs free on Kurdish exactly like other famous Arab singers. After the newly formed Iranian regime sit up a policy of assimilation of the Kurdish population , Iranian security forces arrested him.

Meanwhile, he was a very important Kurdish singer in Western Kurdistan. There was hardly anyone in the west of Kurdistan, who did not know his music. At that time he had already brought 14 music cassettes on the market, which had sold quickly. But his music also found encouragement in other parts of Kurdistan. In , on 9 March the Kurdish singer died after three days of illness. Many artists make music based on his style.

His folk elements of music and often political lyrics made him a special person. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia's notability guideline for music. Please help to establish notability by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent of the topic and provide significant coverage of it beyond a mere trivial mention.

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