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Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. The sexual behaviors of to year-olds increase the risk of this population to acquire sexually transmitted infections STIs. The present study aimed to describe the sexual behavior in the transition to adulthood Brazilian population and its association with STI history. Sex analyzed cross-sectional data collected from sexually active women and men who sex in sx National Sex of Human Papillomavirus Prevalence POP-Brazil. This large-scale survey enrolled participants the 26 The capitals and the Federal The.
Asexuality is the sex of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual activity. Asexuality is distinct from the from sex activity and from celibacy[8] [9] which are behavioral and generally motivated by factors such as an individual's personal, social, or religious beliefs. Acceptance of asexuality as a sexual orientation and field of scientific research is still relatively new, [2] [12] [5] as a growing body of research from both sociological sex psychological perspectives has the to develop. Various asexual communities have started to form since the advent of the Internet and social media. The most prolific and well-known of these communities is the Asexual Visibility and Education Networkwhich was founded in by The Jay. Asexuality is sometimes called ace a phonetic shortening of "asexual" [14]while sex community is sometimes called the ace communityby researchers or asexuals.
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Findings from the national survey of human papillomavirus prevalence (POP-Brazil)

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Conceptualization: Adele Schwartz Benzaken. Formal analysis: Marina Bessel. Methodology: Eliana Marcia Wendland. Project administration: Eliana Marcia Wendland.

Supervision: Eliana Marcia Wendland. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy.

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Thought you might appreciate this item s I saw at Medicine. Send a copy to your email. Some error has occurred while processing your request. Please try after some time. Abstract 1 Introduction 2 Methods 2. Back to Top Article Outline. Table 1. Table 2. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 3. Sexual behavior and heavy episodic drinking across the transition to adulthood: differences by college attendance.

J Res Adolesc ;— Access in April Cited Here Am J Community Psychol ;— Epidemiology of HIV infection and risk in adolescents and youth. Sexually transmitted diseases : epidemiological and clinical aspects in adults. Riv Urol ;—8. Correlates of sexual initiation among European adolescents. PLoS One ; Potential predictors of risk sexual behavior among private college students in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia.

Pan Afr Med J ; WHO Sexually transmitted infections among adolescents: the need for adequate health services [Internet]. Lyons HA. Heterosexual casual sex and STI diagnosis: a latent class analysis. Int J Sex Health ;— The impact of culture and ethnicity on sexuality and sexual function.

Curr Sex Health Rep ;— Odimegwu C, Somefun OD. Ethnicity, gender and risky sexual behaviour among Nigerian youth: an alternative explanation. Reprod Health ;14 Access in March Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. BMC Public Health ; 1. Cross-cultural differences and sexual risk behavior of emerging adults.

J Transcult Nurs ;— Berhan Y, Berhan A. A meta-analysis of risky sexual behaviour among male youth in developing countries. Kocken P. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles.

Health Educ Res ;—8. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviour among adolescents in Catalonia, Spain. Gac Sanit ;—9. A meta-analytic review of research on gender differences in sexuality. Psychol Bull ;— Patra S. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age?

Illicit drug use and its association with key sexual risk behaviours and outcomes: Findings from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles Natsal PLos One ;e Kann L.

Sex Transm Dis ;35 supplement :S4— Hogben M, Leichliter JS. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities. Sex Transm Dis ;35 supplement :S13—8. Contextual factors associated with sexual behavior among Brazilian adolescents. Ann Epidemiol ;— Rev Bras Epidemiol ;17 suppl 1 — Sexual behavior among high school students in Brazil: alcohol consumption and legal and illegal drug use associated with unprotected sex.

Clinics ;— Heilborn ML, ed. Rio de Janeiro, R. Editora: Garamond. Sex Transm Dis ;— Braz J Infect Dis ;— Sexual diversity in the United States: Results from a nationally representative probability sample of adult women and men. PLoS One ;e Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men in the United States to obtain HIV and syphilis rates. Guttmacher Institute. HPV infection and cervical neoplasia: associated risk factors.

Infect Agent Cancer ; 1. Sexual behaviour in context: a global perspective. Lancet Lond Engl ;— Heterosexual practices among young people in Britain: evidence from three national surveys of sexual attitudes and lifestyles.

J Infect Dis ;— Changes in sexual attitudes and lifestyles in Britain through the life course and over time: findings from the National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles Natsal.

Lancet ;— Trends in sexual behavior , testing, and knowledge in young people; — Sex Transm Dis ;—4. Sexual behavior and factors associated with young age at first intercourse and HPV vaccine uptake among young women in Germany: implications for HPV vaccination policies.

BMC Public Health ; Trends in condom use and risk behaviours after sexual exposure to HIV: a seven-year observational study. PLoS One ;9:e Reasons for non-use of condoms among men who have sex with men: a comparison of receptive and insertive role in sex and online and offline meeting venue. Cult Health Sex ;— Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in based on systematic review and global reporting.

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in at-risk adolescent females at a comprehensive, stand-alone adolescent health center in New York City. Now to the unmarried and the widows I say: It is good for them to stay unmarried, as I am. But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to burn with passion. Nonetheless, some Christians regard asexuality as imaginary or even immoral. Sexuality is a gift from God and thus a fundamental part of our human identity.

Those who repress their sexuality are not living as God created them to be: fully alive and well. As such, they're most likely unhappy. Both homosexual and heterosexual people thought of asexuals as not only cold, but also animalistic and unrestrained. Asexuals also face prejudice from the LGBT community. In some jurisdictions, asexuals have legal protections. While Brazil bans since whatever pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals through the national ethical code, [93] the US state of New York has labeled asexuals as a protected class.

Asexual representation in the media is limited and rarely openly acknowledged or confirmed by creators or authors. Gilligan , the eponymous character of the s television series Gilligan's Island , would today be classified as asexual.

Asexuality as a sexual identity, rather than as a biological entity, became more widely discussed in the media in the beginning of the twenty-first century. However, this representation has been questioned by members of the asexual community including AVEN founder, David Jay due to the episode concluding in the reveal that the man simply had a pituitary tumor that reduced his sex drive, and the woman was only pretending to be asexual to please him. This has been further elaborated in the 4th season of the series and has been generally well accepted by the asexual community for its methods of positive representation.

Media related to Human asexuality at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about humans who lack sexual attraction or interest in sexual activity. For the lack of romantic attraction, see Aromantic.

For the lack of a gender, see Agender. For other uses, see Asexual. Lack of sexual attraction to others. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. See also: Romantic orientation. Main article: LGBT symbols. Main article: Discrimination against asexual people.

Human sexuality portal. Crooks; Karla Baur Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. Retrieved January 4, Helm Sexuality Today: The Human Perspective 7 ed. Journal of Sex Research. Contemporary Sexuality. Archived from the original on November 6, Sex and Society. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved July 27, Varcarolis Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved May 7, Psychology Today.

Retrieved December 13, American Psychological Association. Retrieved March 30, Graham August Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on September 27, Retrieved August 31, The Guardian. Retrieved February 2, Simon and Schuster. Retrieved April 20, Retrieved February 8, Asexualities: Feminist and Queer Perspectives. Retrieved July 3, Review of General Psychology.

Fischer; Steven Seidman Introducing the New Sexuality Studies. The Asexual Visibility and Education Network. Retrieved January 6, New Scientist. Archived from the original on December 19, Retrieved November 11, The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved September 16, The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. Difference and Commonality Within the Asexual Community". In Greenblatt, Ellen ed.

Lehmiller The Psychology of Human Sexuality. Retrieved November 29, August 21, Retrieved March 11, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Oyster; Jane E. Sloan February 23, Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. SAGE Publications. Penguin Books. May 1, Evidence from national probability surveys". August 16, See the full poll results. Retrieved December 31, Feminist Studies.

Retrieved April 29, The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Diversity in family life. Policy Press. The Journal of Sex Research. The Invisible Orientation: an Introduction to Asexuality. New York: Carrel Books. Annual Review of Sex Research.

Sexual hormones and the brain: an essential alliance for sexual identity and sexual orientation. Endocr Dev. Endocrine Development. Gochros, H. Gochros The Sexually Oppressed. Associated Press. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Sexual orientation and self-perception. Pliner, Patricia et al. Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect. Mathews Psychology 9th ed. New York: Worth Publishers.

Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta. Asexuality and Sexual Normativity: An Anthology. Oleksy; Aleksandra M. Wojtaszek Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Retrieved October 5, The emergence of asexual community at the cusp of the twenty-first century came as a surprise for social scientists. Asexuals, people who experience no sexual attraction, have started to build an online community and form a cohesive sexual identity inspired by the emancipation of other LGBTQ movements.

Goldberg The New York Times. Retrieved September 17, Differences and commonality within the asexual community". Retrieved October 6, Asexuals at the Pride Parade". Retrieved July 15, January 9, Retrieved August 7, Hindustan Times. Retrieved September 8, Retrieved January 3, HuffPost UK. Retrieved September 4, September 7, Understanding Asexuality. Asexual Awareness Week. Boston, Massachusetts: Palgrave Macmillan. Sex in Christianity and Psychoanalysis.

Routledge Library Editions: Psychoanalysis. An Invitation to Sociology of Religion. Sexual Minority Research in the New Millennium. Huffington Post. Retrieved August 2, BBC News. Retrieved January 1, Retrieved April 4, April 30, Archived from the original on March 10, Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender.

The sexual behaviors of to year-olds increase the risk of this population to acquire sexually transmitted infections STIs. The present study aimed to describe the sexual behavior in the transition to adulthood Brazilian population and its association with STI history.

We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from sexually active women and men who participated in the National Survey of Human Papillomavirus Prevalence POP-Brazil. This large-scale survey enrolled participants from 26 Brazilian capitals and the Federal District. Professionals from primary care facilities were trained to collect data utilizing a standardized questionnaire with questions on sociodemographic, sexual behavior , and drug use.

We constructed a Poisson model with robust variance for both crude and adjusted analysis to investigate the associations between the variables. To adjust the distribution of the sample to the study population, we weighted the measures by the population size in each city and by gender. There were differences in several aspects from sexual behavior between genders. The majority of men reported an early sexual initiation, more sexual partners, and a different practice in sexual positions when compared with women.

The use of alcohol and drugs and the use of drugs before sexual intercourse impact in STIs equally between the genders. Exclusive for women, the presence of any STI was associated with the practice of vaginal sex and other types of intercourse adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] 1.

For men, the number of sexual partners in the last year APR 1. This is the first report regarding sexual behavior in a nationally representative population sample in Brazil. This study provides more valid estimates of sexual behavior and associated STIs, identifying important differences in sexual behavior and identifying predictors for referred STIs among females and males.

The other authors declare no conflicts of interest. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. The age from 15 to 24 years old, which define the transition to adulthood, is a time of exploration, experimentation, and instability in many areas of life, particularly in relation to sexual behavior.

Sexuality is a normative and physiological component of adolescent development [5] and usually this group engage in risky sexual practices such as early sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, unprotected sexual intercourse, and casual sex. Sociocultural differences are determinant of sexual behaviors, influencing the age of first intercourse, number of partners, coercive sexual culture and it can affect the probability of being engaged in risky sex.

Social behavior as smoking, alcohol, and drugs use also increase the probability of having a sexual behavior associated with STIs, as well as having an early sexual debut and several sexual partners.

Because the rates of infection from HPV and other STIs increase soon after the first intercourse and facing the important role of cultural differences in sexual behavior , knowledge of country-specific data are critical to understand patterns of sexual behavior and associated STIs.

Therefore, we aim to describe sexual behavior in the transition to adulthood in a young Brazilian population and its association with STI history. We analyzed data from participants of the Pop-Brazil study, a cross-sectional study that includes sexually active women and men aged of 16 to 25 years from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District.

Briefly, the participants were recruited in primary care units by using different approaches such as a personal invitation during routine healthcare visits, domiciliary visits, and school-based programs as well as patient lists and local media, between September of and November of All participants answered a face-to-face interview with questions about sociodemographic factors, alcohol and drug consumption habits, sexual behaviors, and STIs during life.

The main outcomes are differences in sexual behavior and associated STI infection. The participants were asked about their age of first intercourse, the number of sexual partners in the last year, the number of sexual partners in the last 5 years, and types of sex: exclusively vaginal, other excluding vaginal anal and oral sex or other sexual acts , and same-sex relationships.

We also asked about use and type of contraceptive methods, condom use during life and its use in the last sexual intercourse, as well as use of drugs and alcohol. The diagnosis of STIs throughout life was obtained by self-report. We asked if the participants ever had syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, genital warts condyloma acuminatum , HPV, or other sexual infections.

Some sociodemographic characteristics about the population were also investigated. A descriptive analysis was done using means and confidence intervals for continuous variables and absolute frequencies for categorical data. The differences among the means were assessed by the t -test and the chi-squared test was used to evaluate the differences among categories. A nonparametric test was used when the data were not normally distributed. We investigated the association between the sociodemographic and sexual aspects of alcohol and drug abuse with the presence of STIs through the construction of a Poisson with robust variance model for both crude PR and adjusted APR analysis.

To adjust the distribution of the sample to the study population, we used a weight adjustment population sizes in each capital and by sex. Sociodemographic characteristics were similar in both genders, except for the socioeconomical index Table 1. The majority of the participants self-declared themselves as pardo, followed by white and black in both genders.

There was a higher proportion of young females that left school before finishing it There was a significant difference in the socioeconomic index that evaluates the number of goods in a household, according to sex. More than half of the participants were classified as class C, with a higher percentage of women in a lower class In general, females and males are different regarding sexual behavior , alcohol, and drug use Table 2.

A higher proportion of males had the first intercourse with less than fourteen years old, had more sexual partners in last 5 years, and more same-sex sexual experiences. Vaginal sex exclusively was more frequent in females Men reported more oral sex than women Safe sex behavior and contraceptive use also differ between females and males Table 2.

Although men reported more frequent use of condom in the last intercourse The use of coitus interruptus as a contraceptive method was reported by around 4. There were also differences in the alcohol and drug consumption between the genders Table 2. Men use more addictive substances than women Participants who have same-sex sexual experiences reported higher rates of drug use The frequency of participants who reported ever had a STI was The overall frequency and Gonorrhea were higher in males than females Fig.

The frequency of other STIs is similar among sexes. The prevalence ratio of STIs varies according with independent behavioral characteristics Table 3. STI was more frequent reported by people who referred drug and alcohol intake.

For men, number of sexual partners in the last year APR 1. In the full model for women, adjusted by all sexual and behavioral characteristics, age 1. In opposite, higher age in the first intercourse 0. In men, the full model shows that age 1. We evaluated the sexual behavior and the reporting of STIs across the transition to adulthood in a Brazilian population. Although many studies have explored the sexual attitudes in adolescents [3,5,6,24—28] or in specific groups, [29,30] this is the first nationwide Brazilian study that assesses its association with STIs in a broad young population.

Besides age, the factors associated with reported STIs are different according with gender. STIs prevalence ratio is associated to drug use and inversely related to older age of the first intercourse or absence of vaginal sex in women. Same-sex intercourse was insignificant in women, but it is the behavior that leads to the higher prevalence ratio in men along with lower education. To our knowledge, we present the first nationwide study to evaluate sex behavior and its association with referred STI in adolescent and young adults.

This study has several limitations. The data collected are from the areas of Primary Care Units. We use a convenience sample, and, although we invited the participants in the community or school, only the ones that attended the Primary Care Unit were included and we could not avoid selection bias.

Although we used weight adjustments to incorporate differential probabilities in the patient selection, the representativeness of this study is restricted to the population living in the Brazilian capitals. We collected data on a wide range of sexual and social behaviors, but we do not have information about the time of the referred STIs or serological data support this information. Furthermore, the information collected may be limited to the widely known or easily recognized STIs; therefore, this diagnosis could be subjected to a misclassification bias.

For example, we did not ask any information regarding Chlamydia spp, which is not screened or notified in Brazil, and some STIs are not easily recognized.

Therefore, it is possible that the true proportion of infected people can be higher than estimated by our study. This young population experiences a diversity of sexual behaviors and there are clear differences between male and female.

Most of the participants reported having other types of sexual intercourses in addition to vaginal, similar to the sexual behavior of the adult population in the United States. The age of sexual debut varies among different cultures. Our results confirmed previous studies showing that Brazilians engage in their first intercourse at younger ages than people who live in Great Britain [18,19,38] and other populations [35,36] or in studies conducted more than 10 years ago 18 years [37] in Brazil.

The age of first intercourse has decreased over time in many countries, [38—40] and the same behavior is also observed in Brazil. Almost half of the participants do not use condom and a smaller proportion reported using one during their last intercourse. The lack of association could be due to the lower use of condom in the overall study population, leading to an incapacity of showing differences between groups. A high proportion of STIs were described for this population, especially between men.

There is an increase in the incidence of STIs in US [20] and other countries [46,47] and also an increase in the reported diagnosis of syphilis in Brazil in recent years. This study provides valid estimates of sexual behavior and associated STIs, identifying important differences in sexual behavior and also in the predictors of prevalence ratio of referred STIs during life among females and males. Condom use is extremely low in this population and do not differ between genders.

An improved understanding of factors associated with STIs among genders and differences in sexual attitudes will lead to improved intervention policy frameworks and programing, ultimately increasing safe sex practices and reducing STIs during life.

In addition, future research is necessary to access the ways in which safe sex and STI awareness can be enhanced in males and females. We want to thank all the health professionals from more than health units who participated in the data acquisition and Dr Daniela Riva Knauth for her valuable comments on the construction of the questionnaire.

Conceptualization: Adele Schwartz Benzaken. Formal analysis: Marina Bessel. Methodology: Eliana Marcia Wendland. Project administration: Eliana Marcia Wendland. Supervision: Eliana Marcia Wendland.

You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy. Subscribe to eTOC. Advanced Search. Toggle navigation. Subscribe Register Login. Your Name: optional. Your Email:.

Colleague's Email:. These other identities include how they define their gender and their romantic orientation. Regarding romantic or emotional aspects of sexual orientation or sexual identity , for example, asexuals may identify as heterosexual , lesbian , gay , bisexual , queer , [20] [21] or by the following terms to indicate that they associate with the romantic, rather than sexual, aspects of sexual orientation: [17] [21].

People may also identify as a gray-A such as a gray-romantic, demiromantic, demisexual or semisexual because they feel that they are between being aromantic and non-aromantic, or between asexuality and sexual attraction. While the term gray-A may cover anyone who occasionally feels romantic or sexual attraction, demisexuals or semisexuals experience sexual attraction only as a secondary component, feeling sexual attraction once a reasonably stable or large emotional connection has been created.

Other unique words and phrases used in the asexual community to elaborate identities and relationships also exist. One term coined by individuals in the asexual community is friend-focused , which refers to highly valued, non-romantic relationships. Other terms include squishes and zucchinis , which are non-romantic crushes and queer-platonic relationships, respectively.

Terms such as non-asexual and allosexual are used to refer to individuals on the opposite side of the sexuality spectrum. Asexuality is not a new aspect of human sexuality, but it is relatively new to public discourse. Smith of The Guardian is not sure asexuality has actually increased, rather leaning towards the belief that it is simply more visible.

He also included a category he called "X" for individuals with "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions. Lehmiller stated, "the Kinsey X classification emphasized a lack of sexual behavior, whereas the modern definition of asexuality emphasizes a lack of sexual attraction.

As such, the Kinsey Scale may not be sufficient for accurate classification of asexuality. Further empirical data about an asexual demographic appeared in , when a research team in the United Kingdom carried out a comprehensive survey of 18, British residents, spurred by the need for sexual information in the wake of the AIDS pandemic. The survey included a question on sexual attraction, to which 1. Since less sexually experienced people are more likely to refuse to participate in studies about sexuality, and asexuals tend to be less sexually experienced than sexuals, it is likely that asexuals were under-represented in the responding participants.

The same study found the number of homosexuals and bisexuals combined to be about 1. In a survey conducted by YouGov in , 1, British adults were asked to try to place themselves on the Kinsey scale. There is significant debate over whether or not asexuality is a sexual orientation. The first study that gave empirical data about asexuals was published in by Paula Nurius, concerning the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health. Results showed that asexuals were more likely to have low self-esteem and more likely to be depressed than members of other sexual orientations; A similar trend existed for depression.

Nurius did not believe that firm conclusions can be drawn from this for a variety of reasons. In a study, Yule et al. The results of male and female participants were included in the findings. Yule et al. The same was found for female asexual participants over their heterosexual counterparts; however, non-asexual, non-heterosexual females had the highest rates. Asexual participants of both sexes were more likely to have anxiety disorders than heterosexual and non-heterosexual participants, as were they more likely than heterosexual participants to report having had recent suicidal feelings.

With regard to sexual orientation categories, asexuality may be argued as not being a meaningful category to add to the continuum, and instead argued as the lack of a sexual orientation or sexuality. The suggestion that asexuality is a sexual dysfunction is controversial among the asexual community. Those who identify as asexual usually prefer it to be recognized as a sexual orientation. Because of these facts coming to light, it is reasoned that asexuality is more than a behavioral choice and is not something that can be cured like a disorder.

Research on the etiology of sexual orientation when applied to asexuality has the definitional problem of sexual orientation not consistently being defined by researchers as including asexuality. While some asexuals masturbate as a solitary form of release or have sex for the benefit of a romantic partner, others do not see above. The Kinsey Institute sponsored another small survey on the topic in , which found that self-identified asexuals "reported significantly less desire for sex with a partner, lower sexual arousability, and lower sexual excitation but did not differ consistently from non-asexuals in their sexual inhibition scores or their desire to masturbate".

Johnson, is explicitly devoted to asexuality in humans. She portrays them as invisible, "oppressed by a consensus that they are non-existent," and left behind by both the sexual revolution and the feminist movement. Johnson argued that society either ignores or denies their existence or insists they must be ascetic for religious reasons, neurotic, or asexual for political reasons.

In a study published in in volume five of Advances in the Study of Affect , as well as in another article using the same data and published in in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Michael D.

Storms of the University of Kansas outlined his own reimagining of the Kinsey scale. Whereas Kinsey measured sexual orientation based on a combination of actual sexual behavior and fantasizing and eroticism, Storms used only fantasizing and eroticism. Storms, however, placed hetero-eroticism and homo-eroticism on separate axes rather than at two ends of a single scale; this allows for a distinction between bisexuality exhibiting both hetero- and homo-eroticism in degrees comparable to hetero- or homosexuals, respectively and asexuality exhibiting a level of homo-eroticism comparable to a heterosexual and a level of hetero-eroticism comparable to a homosexual, namely, little to none.

This type of scale accounted for asexuality for the first time. In a study by Paula Nurius, which included subjects most of whom were students at various universities in the United States taking psychology or sociology classes , the two-dimensional fantasizing and eroticism scale was used to measure sexual orientation. Based on the results, respondents were given a score ranging from 0 to for hetero-eroticism and from 0 to for homo-eroticism.

Respondents who scored lower than 10 on both were labeled "asexual". Results showed that asexuals reported much lower frequency and desired frequency of a variety of sexual activities including having multiple partners, anal sexual activities, having sexual encounters in a variety of locations, and autoerotic activities.

A paper written by Karli June Cerankowski and Megan Milks, titled New Orientations: Asexuality and Its Implications for Theory and Practice , suggests that asexuality may be somewhat of a question in itself for the studies of gender and sexuality. The asexual movement challenges that assumption by challenging many of the basic tenets of pro-sex feminism [in which it is] already defined as repressive or anti-sex sexualities.

This formula, if dissected scientifically and proven, would support researcher Simon LeVay 's blind study of the hypothalamus in gay men, women, and straight men, which indicates that there is a biological difference between straight men and gay men.

In , Cerankowski and Milks edited and published Asexualities: Feminist and Queer Perspectives , a collection of essays intended to explore the politics of asexuality from a feminist and queer perspective. Each part contains two to three papers on a given aspect of asexuality research. One such paper is written by Ela Przybylo, another name that is becoming common in asexual scholarly literature.

Her article, with regard to the Cerankowski and Milks anthology, focuses on accounts by self-identified male asexuals, with a particular focus on the pressures men experience towards having sex in dominant Western discourse and media. Three men living in Southern Ontario, Canada, were interviewed in , and Przybylo admits that the small sample-size means that her findings cannot be generalized to a greater population in terms of representation, and that they are "exploratory and provisional", especially in a field that is still lacking in theorizations.

Another of Przybylo's works, Asexuality and the Feminist Politics of "Not Doing It" , published in , takes a feminist lens to scientific writings on asexuality. Pryzyblo argues that asexuality is made possible only through the Western context of "sexual, coital, and heterosexual imperatives".

In this article, Przybylo once again asserts the understanding of asexuality as a cultural phenomenon, and continues to be critical of its scientific study. CJ DeLuzio Chasin states in Reconsidering Asexuality and Its Radical Potential that academic research on asexuality "has positioned asexuality in line with essentialist discourses of sexual orientation" which is troublesome as it creates a binary between asexuals and persons who have been subjected to psychiatric intervention for disorders such as Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder.

Chasin states that asexuality has the power to challenge commonplace discourse of the naturalness of sexuality, but that the unquestioned acceptance of its current definition does not allow for this.

Chasin also argues there and elsewhere in Making Sense in and of the Asexual Community: Navigating Relationships and Identities in a Context of Resistance that is important to interrogate why someone might be distressed about low sexual desire. Chasin further argues that clinicians have an ethical obligation to avoid treating low sexual desire per se as pathological, and to discuss asexuality as a viable possibility where relevant with clients presenting clinically with low sexual desire.

Bogaert argues that understanding asexuality is of key importance to understanding sexuality in general. This definition of asexuality also makes clear this distinction between behavior and desire, for both asexuality and celibacy, although Bogaert also notes that there is some evidence of reduced sexual activity for those who fit this definition.

He further distinguishes between desire for others and desire for sexual stimulation, the latter of which is not always absent for those who identify as asexual, although he acknowledges that other theorists define asexuality differently and that further research needs to be done on the "complex relationship between attraction and desire". In an earlier article, Bogaert acknowledges that a distinction between behavior and attraction has been accepted into recent conceptualizations of sexual orientation, which aids in positioning asexuality as such.

An academic work dealing with the history of the asexual community is presently lacking. For some, being a part of a community is an important resource because they often report having felt ostracized. Some question the concept of online community, while others depend on the online asexual community heavily for support. Elizabeth Abbott posits that there has always been an asexual element in the population, but that asexual people kept a low profile.

While the failure to consummate marriage was seen as an insult to the sacrament of marriage in medieval Europe, and has sometimes been used as grounds for divorce or to rule a marriage void, asexuality, unlike homosexuality, has never been illegal, and it has usually gone unnoticed.

However, in the 21st century, the anonymity of online communication and general popularity of social networking online has facilitated the formation of a community built around a common asexual identity.

Communities such as AVEN can be beneficial to those in search of answers to solve a crisis of identity with regard to their possible asexuality. Individuals go through a series of emotional processes that end with their identifying with the asexual community.

They first realize that their sexual attractions differ from those of most of society. This difference leads to questioning whether the way they feel is acceptable, and possible reasons for why they feel this way.

Pathological beliefs tend to follow, in which, in some cases, they may seek medical help because they feel they have a disease. Self-understanding is usually reached when they find a definition that matches their feelings.

Asexuality communities provide support and information that allows newly identified asexuals to move from self-clarification to identifying on a communal level, which can be empowering, because they now have something to associate with, which gives normality to this overall socially-isolating situation. Asexual organizations and other Internet resources play a key role in informing people about asexuality. The lack of research makes it difficult for doctors to understand the causation.

Like with any sexual orientation, most people who are asexual are self-identified. This can be a problem when asexuality is mistaken for an intimacy or relationship problem or for other symptoms that do not define asexuality.

There is also a significant population that either does not understand or does not believe in asexuality, which adds to the importance of these organizations to inform the general population; however, due to the lack of scientific fact on the subject, what these groups promote as information is often questioned.

The first was held at the World Pride in London. The final flag had been a popular candidate and had previously seen use in online forums outside of AVEN. The final vote was held on a survey system outside of AVEN where the main flag creation efforts were organized. The flag colors have been used in artwork and referenced in articles about asexuality. The black stripe represents asexuality, the grey stripe representing the grey-area between sexual and asexual, the white stripe sexuality, and the purple stripe community.

Asexual Awareness Week occurs on the last full week in October, and is created to celebrate and bring awareness to asexuality including gray asexuality. Studies have found no significant statistical correlation between religion and asexuality, [78] with asexuality occurring with equal prevalence in both religious and irreligious individuals. Because of the relatively recent application of the term asexuality , most religions do not have clear stances on it. Christianity has traditionally revered celibacy which is not the same as asexuality ; [80] the apostle Paul , a lifelong unmarried celibate, has been described by some writers as asexual.

I wish that all men were as I am. But each man has his own gift from God; one has this gift, another has that. Now to the unmarried and the widows I say: It is good for them to stay unmarried, as I am. But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to burn with passion.

Nonetheless, some Christians regard asexuality as imaginary or even immoral. Sexuality is a gift from God and thus a fundamental part of our human identity. Those who repress their sexuality are not living as God created them to be: fully alive and well. As such, they're most likely unhappy. Both homosexual and heterosexual people thought of asexuals as not only cold, but also animalistic and unrestrained. Asexuals also face prejudice from the LGBT community. In some jurisdictions, asexuals have legal protections.

While Brazil bans since whatever pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals through the national ethical code, [93] the US state of New York has labeled asexuals as a protected class. Asexual representation in the media is limited and rarely openly acknowledged or confirmed by creators or authors.

Gilligan , the eponymous character of the s television series Gilligan's Island , would today be classified as asexual. Asexuality as a sexual identity, rather than as a biological entity, became more widely discussed in the media in the beginning of the twenty-first century. However, this representation has been questioned by members of the asexual community including AVEN founder, David Jay due to the episode concluding in the reveal that the man simply had a pituitary tumor that reduced his sex drive, and the woman was only pretending to be asexual to please him.

This has been further elaborated in the 4th season of the series and has been generally well accepted by the asexual community for its methods of positive representation. Media related to Human asexuality at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about humans who lack sexual attraction or interest in sexual activity. For the lack of romantic attraction, see Aromantic. For the lack of a gender, see Agender. For other uses, see Asexual.

Lack of sexual attraction to others. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics.

See also: Romantic orientation. Main article: LGBT symbols. Main article: Discrimination against asexual people. Human sexuality portal. Crooks; Karla Baur Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. Retrieved January 4, Helm Sexuality Today: The Human Perspective 7 ed. Journal of Sex Research. Contemporary Sexuality. Archived from the original on November 6, Sex and Society. Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved July 27, Varcarolis Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved May 7, Psychology Today.

Retrieved December 13, American Psychological Association. Retrieved March 30, Graham August Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on September 27, Retrieved August 31, The Guardian. Retrieved February 2, Simon and Schuster.

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